Tor is a network of virtual tunnels that allows people and groups to improve their privacy and security on the Internet. It also enables software developers to create new communication tools with built-in privacy features.

How does the Tor Browser keep my internet activity anonymous?

The Tor Browser uses the Tor network, which consists of more than six thousand relays located worldwide, to hide the users' location and online traffic. This ensures anonymity and avoids your activities from being seen by others.

What is Tor Browser?

The Tor Browser is the flagship product from the Tor Project. The web browser is based on a modified version of Mozilla Firefox ESR that includes extras like the Tor proxy, TorButton, TorLauncher, NoScript, and HTTPS Everywhere extensions.

Who uses the Tor Browser?

With Tor Browser having made Tor more accessible to everyday internet users and activists, Tor was an instrumental tool during the Arab Spring beginning in late 2010. It not only protected people's identity online but also allowed them to access critical resources, social media, and websites which were blocked.

Individuals use Tor to keep websites from tracking them and their family members, or to connect to news sites, instant messaging services, or the like when these are blocked by their local Internet providers. Tor's hidden services let users publish web sites and other services without needing to reveal the location of the site. Individuals also use Tor for socially sensitive communication: chat rooms and web forums for rape and abuse survivors, or people with illnesses.

Journalists use Tor to communicate more safely with whistleblowers and dissidents. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) use Tor to allow their workers to connect to their home website while they're in a foreign country, without notifying everybody nearby that they're working with that organization.

Groups such as Indymedia recommend Tor for safeguarding their members' online privacy and security. Activist groups like the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) recommend Tor as a mechanism for maintaining civil liberties online. Corporations use Tor as a safe way to conduct competitive analysis, and to protect sensitive procurement patterns from eavesdroppers. They also use it to replace traditional VPNs, which reveal the exact amount and timing of communication. Which locations have employees working late? Which locations have employees consulting job-hunting websites? Which research divisions are communicating with the company's patent lawyers?

A branch of the U.S. Navy uses Tor for open source intelligence gathering, and one of its teams used Tor while deployed in the Middle East recently. Law enforcement uses Tor for visiting or surveilling web sites without leaving government IP addresses in their web logs, and for security during sting operations.

Is Tor better than a VPN?

Tor is not a VPN. Tor is a free browser similar to Chrome or Firefox, but it includes features that encrypt your IP address, making your browsing sessions private. A VPN (Virtual Private Network) is software that can change your IP address when you use any browser installed on your PC. To learn more about VPNs, you can read this article.

What's New

This release updates Firefox to 102.7, including bug fixes, stability improvements and important security updates. There were no Android-specific security updates to backport from the Firefox 109 release.

We use this opportunity to update various components of Tor Browser as well:

  • tor
  • NoScript 11.4.14
  • go 1.19.5

We would like to thank user ryotak for identifying a script blocking bypass on local file:// resources.

All Platforms

  • Updated tor to
  • Updated NoScript to 11.4.14
  • Bug tor-browser#40565: do something with security.tls.version.enable-deprecated
  • Bug tor-browser-build#40713: Use the new tor-browser l10n branch in Firefox
  • Bug tor-browser-build#40727: Update list of Snowflake STUN servers in default bridge line
  • Bug tor-browser#41506: Remove TrustCor root certificates
  • Bug tor-browser#41525: Drop locales from torbutton, since we will inject them in tor-browser-build

Windows + macOS + Linux

  • Updated Firefox to 102.7esr
  • Bug tor-browser#26504: Browser version in about:preferences showing the Firefox ESR version
  • Bug tor-browser#32308: Stop inner letterbox jiggling as border is dragged
  • Bug tor-browser#41375: Clean unused strings
  • Bug tor-browser#41393: about:tbupdate semantic and accessibility problems
  • Bug tor-browser#41522: Backport torbutton -> tor-browser migration to 12.0 series
  • Bug tor-browser#41524: about:tbupdate needs UTF-8
  • Bug tor-browser#41539: Crypto warning weaknesses
  • Bug tor-browser#41549: tor freeze when receiving to many http proxy requests on socks port
  • Bug tor-browser#41561: Maximize warning is broken (regression)
  • Bug tor-browser#41563: Old placeholders used in TorStrings.jsm


  • Bug tor-browser-build#40716: Unable to update to 12.0.1 on Apple Silicon-based Mac


  • Updated GeckoView to 102.7esr
  • Bug tor-browser#41571: Backport Android-specific Firefox 109 to ESR 102.7-based Tor Browser

Build System

  • All Platforms
    • Updated Go to 1.19.5
    • Bug tor-browser-build#40735: Add command to list which translation components need to be updated
    • Bug tor-browser-build#40739: tor-expert-bundle should include ClientTransportPlugin torrc lines for each pluggable transport
  • Windows + macOS + Linux
    • Bug tor-browser-build#40734: Backport the translation project
  • macOS
    • Bug tor-browser-build#40706: macos-signer-stapler should wait for user interaction before attempting stapling